“El Negro,” The Cabo Verdean-Argentine Captain of Argentina’s National Soccer Team.

Those with ancestry in Cabo Verde are known as “Cabo Verdean Argentines” that live in Argentina. There were roughly 8,000 back in the 1980 census. Other sources put the number of descendants of Cabo Verdean immigrants in Argentina at between 12,000 and 15,000. Of this number, only about 300 are believed to be African-born.[i] Before Cabo Verde gained its independence in 1975, its immigrant population was counted among the Portuguese. In the late 19th century, a limited number of people from Cabo Verde arrived in Argentina. Between the 1920s and WWII, there was a sharp rise in the population. The most significant number of Cabo Verdean immigrants arrived between 1927 and 1933 and again after 1946. Famine, a lack of employment possibilities, and resource depletion forced them to leave Cabo Verde.[ii]

 El Gráfico magazine covers.

The majority came from the islands of São Vicente, Santo Antão, and São Nicolau, with some also coming from Fogo and Brava. Buenos Aires Province is home to the largest concentration of Cabo Verdeans and people of Cabo Verdean descent in all of Argentina. Since the majority of them were skilled mariners and fishers, they were typically located near water and found work in ports. They anchored at places such as the South Dock, Ensenada, Rosario, Bahia Blanca, and San Nicolás de Los Arroyos. A large number of them found employment in the Argentine Navy’s Sea Fleet, Merchant Navy, and Fluvial Fleet at the YPF dockyards. [iii] In the largely European-Argentine society, there were many people who had to deal with discrimination. For more than sixty years, two groups have been dedicated to providing mutual support and fostering cultural interchange. The early 1930s saw the establishment of the Society of Mutual Aid, often known as The Cabo Verdean Union of South Dock. Around the same time, the Cabo Verdean Sport and Culture Club of Ensenada came into being.

It’s about time we took a moment to reflect on one of the few Afro-Argentines in soccer history. One of the best defenders in South American soccer history, José Manuel Ramos Delgado, passed away on December 3, 2010, in Buenos Aires.[iv] He was revered as a god by River Plate fans despite never having won a championship during his six years with the mighty club and drawing none other than Pelé’s Santos FC, where he was also magnificent when he was thirty-two years old. He was a calm leader and a pristine defender who captained the national team in sixteen of the twenty-five games he appeared in.[v] Quilmes, Argentina, is the place of origin for Jose Manuel Ramos Delgado. His father, born in São Vicente, Cabo Verde, gave him automatic membership in Argentina’s Cabo Verdean community. During the 1956 season, Jose Manuel Ramos Delgado made his professional debut with Lanús. Quickly, he was able to prove himself and transfer to River Plate, where he spent seven seasons and 172 appearances. Jose Manuel Ramos Delgado started working at Banfield in 1966. After a brief stint, he transferred to Santos FC in Brazil, where he played during the club’s glory years alongside legends like Pelé, Coutinho, and José Macia. He made 324 appearances for Santos and scored once in his career. In his final year as a professional, Jose Manuel Ramos Delgado suited up for Portuguesa Santista. When he was thirty-nine years old, he called it quits.[vi]

Jose Manuel Ramos Delgado managed to make his debut for the national squad in early 1958 and was summoned to the World Cup in Sweden despite having not participated in the qualifiers. He sat out of the Cup, sparing himself the humiliation of watching the “hermanos” get knocked out of the competition in the first round after a 6-1 loss to Czechoslovakia. Jose Manuel Ramos Delgado, also in 1962, traveled to the World Cup being hosted in Chile. His debut was a 3-1 loss to England, but coach Juan Carlos Lorenzo did not start using him until then. The defender did his part: Argentina didn’t concede goals from Hungary in the second game but didn’t score either. A new early elimination was confirmed when the score remained at 0-0. The turnaround occurred in 1964 and 1965, when Jose Manuel Ramos Delgado, or “El Negro,” became a regular in the starting lineup. He was the captain in the Albiceleste’s most major achievement until the 1978 Cup. Argentinian won the 1964 Nations Cup with a 3-0 victory over Brazil in São Paulo.[vii] Even though he played in every qualifying match for the 1966 World Cup, coach Juan Carlos Lorenzo, who took over the national team on the eve of the World Cup, ignored him and only used him in one of the final pre-World Cup tests, an unofficial friendly against Cagliari on June 1, 1966.

Jose Manuel Ramos Delgado accomplished all of his career highlights while wearing the white jersey of Santos FC. He took home the Paulista title four times (1967, 1968, 1969, and 1973) and the “Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa” trophy once (1968). Following his playing career’s conclusion, Jose Manuel Ramos Delgado served as the manager of Brazilian club Santos for a time before returning to Argentina, where he managed a number of different teams, including Belgrano, Deportivo Maip, Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata, Estudiantes de La Plata, River Plate, Talleres de Córdoba, Platense, All Boys, and his hometown club Quilmes. He also functioned as the manager of the Peruvian team Universitario. Soon after, he went back to Santos to work as a youth team coach, where he shaped the careers of future stars like Robinho and Diego. After completing training at the Circle of Sports Journalism in 1994, he began working as a sports pundit for a number of broadcast outlets.[viii]

Argentina National Team in 1964. Standing: Rattín, Varacka, Carrizo, Vieytez, Ramos Delgado, Simeone. Crouching: Onega, Rendo, Prospitti, Rojas and Mesiano. Credit: m.diariouno.com.ar.
Argentina national team in 1964. Standing: Rattín, Varacka, Carrizo, Vieytez, Ramos Delgado, Simeone. Crouching: Onega, Rendo, Prospitti, Rojas, and Mesiano. Credit: m.diariouno.com.ar.
Credit: Revista do Esporte number 447 – September 30, 1967.
Pelé and Jose Manuel Ramos Delgado “El Negro”

[i]  University of Massachusetts – Dartmouth. “1995 Cape Verdean Diaspora Population Estimates.” Retrieved on December 8, 2022.

[ii] António Carreira, Migrações Nas Ilhas De Cabo Verde (Lisbon: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Ciências Humanas e Sociais, 1977).

[iii] Marta M. Maffia, “Migration and Identity of Cape Verdeans and Their Descendants in Argentina,” African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal 3, no. 2 (2010): pp. 169-180, https://doi.org/10.1080/17528631.2010.481954.

[iv] “ Murió El Negro Ramos Delgado,” La Nacion, December 3, 2010, https://www.lanacion.com.ar/deportes/futbol/murio-el-negro-ramos-delgado-nid1330490/.

[v] “Anécdotas Del Superclásico: José Ramos Delgado – Deportes – Taringa!,” accessed December 8, 2022, https://www.taringa.net/+deportes/anecdotas-del-superclasico-jose-ramos-delgado_134p7d.

[vi] “Murió El Negro Ramos Delgado,” La Nacion, December 3, 2010, https://www.lanacion.com.ar/deportes/futbol/murio-el-negro-ramos-delgado-nid1330490/.

[vii] “Murió El Negro Ramos Delgado,” La Nacion, December 3, 2010, https://www.lanacion.com.ar/deportes/futbol/murio-el-negro-ramos-delgado-nid1330490/.

[viii] “Murió El Negro Ramos Delgado,” La Nacion, December 3, 2010, https://www.lanacion.com.ar/deportes/futbol/murio-el-negro-ramos-delgado-nid1330490/.


The First Captain of Sport Lisboa e Benfica was a CaboVerdeano

In the kingdom of Morocco in 1825 a young Jewish boy by the name of Fortunato Levy was born, he would later marry a young woman by the name of Victoria. The records are silent of the year of her birth, but it is known that she was also born in Morocco. The two would later emigrate to Portugal and settle in Faro, while in Faro a son would be born to Fortunato and Victoria Levy and he is named Bento.

Bento Levy was born on November 11th, 1851 in Lagos, Faro, Portugal.  Around 1869 at the age of 18, Bento Levy will emigrate to the then colony of Cabo Verde and establishes himself on the island of Santiago. Ten years later, Bento Levy is baptized on July 7th, 1879 at São Nicolau Tolentino, São Domingos, Cabo Verde. He will later marry the daughter of Paulo José Monteiro dos Mosquitos de Santa Maria and Josefa Rodrigues de Carvalho both from the island of Santiago, their daughter was Paula Conceição Monteiro.

Bento and Paula Levy will have 5 sons and there names were José Monteiro Levy [b. 1.14.1877], Álvaro Monteiro Levy, Fortunato Monteiro Levy [b. 4.21.1888 – d. 12.31.1969], Simão Monteiro Levy, and Jayme Monteiro Levy [b. 7.2.1982]. All 5 sons were born in São Lourenço dos Órgãos, Santiago, Cabo Verde. All 5 sons will have some impact in the future development of Cabo Verde, but the one that we will be focusing on is Fortunato Monteiro Levy.

By 1903, we find Fortunato M. Levy studying Business Administration at the Escola Académica located in Lisbon, Portugal. Founded in 1847, the Escola Académica was active until 1976, the year that the doors were permanently closed. There were almost 130 years of prestigious formative training offered during the lifetime of this institution.

Fencing Lesson from Professor Câmara Leme. Escola Académica, September 1903. Source: Tiro Civil, nº 267, of September 15, 1903.

In the picture above the two students appear before the camera in an attitude of great aesthetic beauty. They would certainly be the most outstanding of this class, displaying their virtuosity to their colleagues and reporters.

Now, if we look more closely at the photograph we see that the student who is ready to make touché is one of our acquaintances. This is Fortunato Monteiro Levy, the Cabo Verdean who would take part on the first team of Sport Lisboa e Benfica on January 1, 1905.

We know that Fortunato was not among the 24 men who officiated the founding of the Sport Lisboa e Benfica club. But he did take part in the trainings with other future players at Salésias in 1903, or months before the very founding of Sport Lisboa e Benfica. He participated in 10 of the 24 training sessions of Sport Lisboa organized by Manuel Gourlade and Daniel Santos Brito from February 28, 1904, the day of the Club’s foundation, until January 1, 1905 [Date of the first official meeting against Campo de Ourique].

On January 1st between 8:30 a.m. and 10 a.m. the team started training and this is the morning of the scheduled day for the club’s debut game.

In the field of Salésias, eight athletes were present: Cândido Rosa Rodrigues , António Rosa Rodrigues, Carlos França, Daniel dos Santos Brito, Eduardo Corga Joaquim Ribeiro, José Cruz Viegas and Manuel Gourlade. It was the last training session of an intense eleven month preparation, involving 29 drills, a very high number in a time in football where you played more than you trained!  Of these eight footballers only three would participate in the first game: António Rosa Rodrigues, Carlos França and José Cruz Viegas.

Later that same day, at noon the game begins and by the end of the game Sport Lisboa e Benfica had won their debut match 1-0. Sport Lisboa e Benfica fielded a team with the following players: Pedro Guedes, José Cruz Viegas, Emílio de Carvalho, Fortunato Levy, César de Melo, António Couto, António Rosa Rodrigues, Silvestre Silva, Raul Empis, José Rosa Rodrigues and Carlos França.

Team from the season of 1904/05, in reality the picture dates from the last game of the season (June 29, 1905): From left to right. From top to bottom. Defensive midfielder José Cruz Viegas (right-back), Manuel Mora (goalkeeper), Fortunato Levy (right-back), Albano dos Santos (center midfielder) ), António Couto (left half defense) and Emílio de Carvalho (left defender); In the front, the line of five forwards, from the right-hand to the left-hand side: António Rosa Rodrigues, Silvestre da Silva, Cândido Rosa Rodrigues, José Rosa Rodrigues and Carlos França

Fortunato Levy played as a Defensive Right Midfielder, he showed great promise and had an amazing development and eventually making his debut as a professional footballer [soccer player] at the age of 16.

Sport de Lisboa e Benfica. Circled is Fortunato Monteiro Levy.

Fortunato Monteiro Levy, was also the first cyclist of the Sport Lisboa e Benfica, having debuted on June 11, 1906 in a 1000m race in Palhavã, coming in second place. Still on the same day he finished third in another event, in the process winning the first two trophies in the Club’s history.

We now know that Fortunato Monteiro Levy spent at least  4 years in the capital of Portugal. Between the ages of 15 and 19. By April of 1907, he has returned to the city of Praia, on the island of Santiago in Cabo Verde. He was in Lisbon only during a small window of his long life. A passage that was decisive for his future professional and social life. He acquired knowledge and values that would essential for his success in his homeland.

Once he was back in Santiago, Fortunato put to good use what he had learned at the Escola Académica in the commercial house of Levy & Irmãos founded by his father. There he dedicated to family business and eventually reaching the position of prominence in business and in social associations throughout Cabo Verde.

Six years after his return to Cabo Verde, Fortunato Monteiro Levy in February of 1913 is appointed the Administrator of the Municipality of Praia.

from the newspaper “O Independente” nº 30 from 02.27.1913 -“Nomeação. O nosso prezado amigo, sr. Fortunato Levy, foi nomeado administrador do concelho da Praia. As nossas felicitações.” -English: “Appointment. Our dear friend, Mr. Fortunato Levy, has been appointed administrator of the municipality of Praia.

On February 19, 1914 in the city of São Filipe, Fogo Fortunato Monteiro Levy marries a young lady by the name of Maria Júlia de Medeiros Gomes Barbosa [b. 11.12.1887-d. 2.7.1966]. She was the daughter of António Gomes Barbosa [b. 5.26.1862-d. 1966] and Ana Roiz Barbosa [b. 9.14.1861 d. ???]. On December 29th, 1915 in the capital city of Praia a son is born to Fortunato and Maria Levy and he is named Orlando Barbosa Levy. Fortunato Monteiro Levy would also have a daughter by the name of Tinita Vieira de Andrade, but the name of the mother is not known to me.

Fortunato Monteiro Levy also belonged to a few commercial associations. On the 3rd of November 1918 in Praia, he was elected Secretary of  Associação Comercial e Agrícola. By 1944, He also belonged to the Associação Comercial de Sotavento with other elite businessmen such as Solomão Benoliel, António M. Sousa Lobo, Carlos Pinto Wahnon, Abilio Monteiro de Macedo and many others.

On December 31st, 1969 in the city of Praia, Fortunato Monteiro Levy passes away at the age of 81. During our research we were not able to find any official records that stated that Fortunato Monteiro Levy was the first captain of Sport Lisboa e Benfica during their first game of their inaugural season 1904/05. But we game across many blog posts that states that he was voted as the team captain, which in itself is an amazing feat as he was just 16 years old when he made his debut for the team.

Fortunato Monteiro Levy
Fortunato Monteiro Levy as a young man
Maria Júlia de Medeiros Gomes Barbosa (1887-1966), Wife of Fortunato Monteiro Levy
Orlando Barbosa Levy [1915- ], Son of Fortunato and Maria Levy
Tinita Vieira de Andrade, Daughter of Fortunato Monteiro Levy
(A) announcement of the commercial house “Levy & Irmãos” in the newspaper “O Caboverdiano” from April 1918; (B) List of the governing bodies of the association “Commercial and Agricultural Association” 3 November 1918. Fortunato was elected Secretary of the General Assembly; (C) Obituary notice in the newspaper “O Arquipélago” nº 386 of 01 Jan 1970


Works Cited

Abecassis, José Maria. Genealogia Hebraica: Portugal E Gibraltar: Séculos XVII a XX. Vol. III. Lisboa: J.M. Abecassis, 1991. Print.

Almeida Santos, Luis. Wahnon: Contribution for a Genealogy – Contributo Para Uma Genealogia. Charleston, SC, USA: CreateSpace Independent Platform, 2011. Print.

Barbosa, Antero J. Famílias Da Ilha Do Fogo (Portuguese Edition). San Bernadino, CA, USA: CreateSpace Independent Platform, 2014. Print.

“Benfica História I – 1904-1916 (Fundação Do Glorioso E Primeiros Titulos).” Benfica HD. N.p., 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 30 Dec. 2016. <https://benficahd.blogspot.com/2010/02/benfica-historia-i-1904-1916-fundacao.html>.

Correia, Claudia. Presença De Judeus Em Cabo Verde: Inventariação Na Documentação Do Arquivo Histórico Nacional (1840-1927). Praia (Cape Verde): Arquivo Historico Nacional, 1998. Print.

Correia, Cláudia. A Questão Do Cemitério Israelita Na Ilha Da BoaVista [1915/1923]. N.p.: Fundação Eng. António De Almeida, 1999. Print. Africana Studia N.2.

“Decifrando Imagens Do Passado – Page 27 – Memórias – SerBenfiquista.com – Fórum De Adeptos Do Sport Lisboa E Benfica.” Decifrando Imagens Do Passado – Page 27 – Memórias – SerBenfiquista.com – Fórum De Adeptos Do Sport Lisboa E Benfica. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2016. <http://serbenfiquista.com/forum/index.php?topic=53816.390>.

“Fortunato Levy.” Serbenfiquista.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2016. <http://serbenfiquista.com/jogador/fortunato-levy>.

“Fortunato Monteiro LEVY, ®.” Fortunato Monteiro LEVY, ®. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2016. <http://www.barrosbrito.com/7976.html>.

Oliveira, Mario Fernando De., Carlos Rebelo Da. Silva, and Ribeiro Dos. Reis. Historia Do Sport Lisboa E Benfica, 1904-1954. Lisboa: “Os Ridiculos”, 1954. Print.

“Um Minuto De Silêncio.” Em Defesa Do Benfica. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Dec. 2016. <http://em-defesa-do-benfica.blogspot.com/2015/01/um-minuto-de-silencio.html>.

Aniceto António Ferreira: Captain-General and Commander of Boa Vista

In 1787, the Island of Boa Vista became a fiefdom for Aniceto António Ferreira after he was named Captain-General and Commander [Capitão-Mor e Comandante] of the island, Aniceto António Ferreira was a noble and he was very close to the Royal Court of Portugal. Aniceto António Ferreira was baptized on April 21, 1753, in the town of Nelas, in the Parish of Senhorim, which is part of the County of Nelas, in the district of Viseu, in the country of Portugal. His full name at birth was Aniceto António Álvares Ferreira Mendes. His parents were António Manuel Álvares [b. 4.21.1721] born in the village of Oliveirinha, Oliveira do Conde, county Carregal do Sal, district of Viseu and baptized 2.5 miles away in the church of São Pedro in Oliveira do Conde, and Maria Josefa Ferreira Mendes born and baptized in the town of Melo, in the county of Gouveia, in the district of Guarda, in the church of Santo Isidoro. Aniceto was the paternal grandson of João Gomes Álvares [Died on 5.31.1689] and Maria Fernandes [died a widow, in Fiais, on 9.29.1728], and paternal great-grandson of Simão Gomes and Isabela da Fonseca, maternal grandson of Francisco Ferreira and Josefa Rodriguez Mendes.  

Aniceto António Ferreira was married to Felippa Ignez Ferreira da Graça e Silva a native of the island of Boa Vista, Cabo Verde daughter of João da Silva Soares and Ignez da Graça [both born in Portugal]. Aniceto António Ferreira was the father of Maria Josefa Ferreira; Euphemia Ferreira; Apolónia Ferreira; Júlio Cândido Ferreira and Margarida Ferreira. In 1793, one of his daughters married Manuel António Martins [1771?-1845], a Galician shipmaster who had arrived the previous year with casks of wine from Faial in the Azores.

Aniceto António Ferreira Alvares Mendes [1753-1830]
Aniceto António Ferreira Alvares Mendes [1753-1830]

Aniceto had 7 siblings, an older sister five younger sisters and one younger brother. On May 21st of 1769, at the age of sixteen his father passes away and making him the de facto head of the family. It is believed that the pressure of earning a living for the family will soon after force him to travel to Cabo Verde in order to try to earn a living for his family.

 Aniceto António Ferreira arrived in Boa Vista during the period of domination of the Pará and Maranhão Grain Company, between 1756 and 1770. He was actively interested in the economic development of Cabo Verde but especially the island of Boa Vista. In correspondents with the Portuguese Government he mentions that in 1774 at the age of twenty-one, he travelled from Boa Vista to Sal with over one hundred men in an expedition to collect archil. In a document found in the Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino. Cabo Verde, Caixa 42, doc. 59, he describes his voyages around the Islands of Cabo Verde and the agricultural and civil status of the islands.

During this time the Island of Boa Vista had two  parishes; one on the village of  São Roque, located on the Ribeira of Rabil and the other is called São João; the Island exported livestock but the main export was salt.He was attached to whaling activities, he was also a businessman, farmer, cattleman, and he also was a person of great initiative. 

Aniceto António Ferreira Alvares Mendes [1753-1830]

Aniceto António Ferreira was captain of militia, Captain-General, Judge and overseer of the Royal Plantation [Estate] in Boa Vista. He reached the infantry rank of Colonel and retired with the rank of Brigadier of the Royal Army of Portugal by decree of June 12, 1819. In 1803, he became a member of the Cavaleiro da Ordem de Cristo [Order of Christ]; he also received Carta de Brasão de Armas from D. João VI [letter of the Coat of Arms from King John VI].

In 1830, Aniceto António Ferreira dies on the island of Boa Vista and is buried there. One can find descendants of Aniceto António Ferreira in the families Ferreira, Martins, Nobre, Pires Ferreira, Lobo, Neves, Ferro and Vera Cruz of Cabo Verde.

Aniceto’s bapt
Aniceto António Ferreira Alvares Mendes [1753-1830]
António Manuel Alvares bap
António Manuel Alvarez Baptismal Record [first on the right]. Transcribed by Maria do Rosario Wadie – Oliveirinha, Ant.o f.o de Joam Gomes e M.a F.rz”[Maria Fernandes] “Aos vinte e hu do mes de Abril de setecentos e v.te e hu [vinte e um] eu o P.e cura abaixo assinado batizei e nao pus os Santos oleos ellos nao aver a Antonio f.o de Joam Gomes e de sua m.er M.a F.rz Foram padrinhos Arcanjo P.ra. Francisco desta vila e Isabel solteira f.a de Mathias Alves todos do d.to [dito] lugar de Oliveirinha de q fiz este assento era ut supra” [Tif 0015]
Joao Alvares death reg
João Alvarez Death Record, 1st on the left [Tif 49]
Antonio Manuel death register
António Manuel Death Register, 2nd on the Left [Tif 0096]
Maria Fernandes (II) bap
Maria Fernandes [II] Baptismal Record, 2nd on the Right [Tif 71]
Maria Fernandes (I) death reg
Maria Fernandes Death Record, Last one on the right [Tif 91]
Maria Josefa Ferreira bapt
Maria Josepha Ferreira Baptismal Record, [Tif 0267]
Simao Gomes (III) bap
Simão Gomes Baptismal Record, Last One On Left [Tif 84]
Simao (III) marriage
Simão Gomes Marriage Record, 2nd on the right [Tif 12]


Rosario Wadie, Maria. “Summary Of My Research on Aniceto Antonio Ferreira’s Paternal Ancestors.” Facebook.com – Cape Verdean Genealogical Society. N.p., 3 July 2015. Web. 19 July 2015. <https://www.facebook.com/CapeVerdeGenealogicalSociety/posts/10153097360173565&gt;.

Faria, Luis António, Suzana Abreu, and Américo C. Araújo. Cabo Verde Terra de Morabeza: Uma Viagem Atraves de Sua Historia e Cultura. Valrico: LAF Enterprises, 2012.

George E. Brooks (2010-12-10). Western Africa and Cabo Verde, 1790s-1830s: Symbiosis of Slave and Legitimate Trades (Kindle Locations 1245-1246). Authorhouse. Kindle Edition.

Geni.com – http://www.geni.com/people/Aniceto-António-Ferreira-Álvares-Mendes/6000000002345179325.

O Investigador portuguez em Inglaterra: ou, Jornal literário, político, &c, Volume 22.Impresso por T. C. Hansard, 1818. Harvard University. Digitized Jun 6, 2007.

General Viriato Gomes da Fonseca: Inventor, Politician, Musician, Scholar and Military leader

General Viriato Gomes da Fonseca 1863-1942
General Viriato Gomes da Fonseca 1863-1942

When we think of Cabo Verdean military leaders or commanders we seem to not get passed Amilcar Cabral, Pedro Pires, Aristides Perreira and some of the other leaders of the Independence movement. But there were a handful of pre-indepence era military men and one of them was General Viriato Gomes da Fonseca.

General Viriato Gomes da Fonseca baptismal record
General Viriato Gomes da Fonseca’s baptismal record, second entry on the left hand side.

General Viriato Gomes da Fonseca was born on December 13, 1863, a native of Curral do Coculi in the Parish of Santo Crucifixo, on the Island of Santo Antão to Manoel Gomes da Fonseca and Julia Juanna Fortes. At the age of seven Viriato Gomes da Fonseca move from Santo Antão to the capital of the Portuguese Empire.  In 1897, After completing his studies at the War College the young lieutenant Viriato returns to Cape Verde with the fixed aim to help in the development of the islands. Viriato was blessed with extraordinary speaking skills and communication skills, he was also very charismatic.

In 1907, he was appointed commander of a battery in an expeditionary mission to Guinea. he fought, at the time, in what was called  the ‘pacification wars’ against the indigenous peoples in the struggle against the Portuguese presence in that territory.

After returning to Lisbon, Viriato was promoted to Major. Back in Cape Verde, Major Viriato Gomes da Fonseca was given the position  of Director of Public Works and Head of Surveying.

Connecting the water supply to the village of Ponta do Sol, the study of the Levadas [an irrigation channel or aqueduct]  and  a topographical survey of the Concelho do Paul, are the most essential works completed by Viriato Gomes da Fonseca on the island of Santo Antão. He also surveyed Montado Real on the Island of Fogo and also had plans for the port on the island of Brava.

Viriato Gomes da Fonseca was also Military Commander of São Vicente, Director of the Municipality of the island of Santo Antão, December 1910 to November 1912 and during the same period, he served also as President of the Municipal Commission of that island.

By 1919, the people of the islands recognized his expertise in the works carried out by Viriato Gomes da Fonseca and they were aware of his great patriotism and love for the homeland, the people entrusted him with the task of representing the Province of Cabo Verde in Parliament. this is how he entered politics and became what today we would call a congressman for the Partido Republicano Português (PRP), from 1919 to 1922 and for the Partido Republicano Constituinte, from  1922 to 1925.

At 63, he was promoted to general and provided services at the Institute Geagráfico and Cadastral, with several studies of his own on the registration of land ownership published by the institute and the Military Magazine. General Viriato Gomes da Fonseca was the only black man who attained the Portuguese army rank of general and probably of any other European army.

General Viriato Gomes da Fonseca was offered the position of Governor General of Angola, but the general turned down the position. He preferred waiting for the position of Governor General of Cabo Verde but that position never came to fruition.

From his marriage to Cesaria da Conceição Machado Fonseca, born in Lisbon, were born ten children: Viriato, Manuel Augusto, John, Julia, Emma, Celisa, Peter, Lucete and Alberto.

General Viriato da Fonseca and his wife Cesária da Conceição da Fonseca
General Viriato da Fonseca and his wife Cesária da Conceição da Fonseca

General Viriato Gomes da Fonseca  died on February 26, 1942, at his residence,  at the Villa Cesaria in Paco de Arcos, Portugal.

Some awards and commendations won by General Viriato Gomes da Fonseca are:

Comendador da Ordem de Nossa Senhora de Vila Viçosa; Medalha Militar de Prata da Rainha D. Amélia; Medalha dos Serviços Distintos no Ultramar; Comendador da Ordem Militar de São Vicente de Aviz; Medalha de Ouro da Classe de Comportamento Exemplar; Cavaleiro da Ordem Militar de Santiago de Espada e Grã Cruz da Ordem Militar de São Bento de Aviz.




Faria, Luis António, Suzana Abreu, and Américo C. Araújo. Cabo Verde Terra de Morabeza: Uma Viagem Atraves de Sua Historia e Cultura. Valrico: LAF Enterprises, 2012.

Family Search – “República de Cabo Verde, Registros Paroquiais, 1787-1957,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1961-45229-15-83?cc=2246703&wc=SFVV-PT5:1396419303,1396421001,1396429323 : accessed 19 February 2015), Santo Antão > Santo Crucifixo > Batismos 1856-1864 > image 114 of 123; Arquivo Nacional de Cabo Verde, Praia, Ilha de Santiago [Cape Verde National Archives, Praia, Ilha de Santiago].

Esquina do Tempo: Magazine Cultural Online – http://brito-semedo.blogs.sapo.cv/158836.html

The Chemist: Roberto Duarte Silva

Roberto Duarte Silva 1837-1889

Roberto D. Silva 1837-1889

On the 56th day of 1837, which was Saturday February 25th,  a son was born to Francisco José Duarte and Mathilde da Rosa Silva and they named him Roberto Duarte Silva. By the age of fourteen Roberto started working as an apprentice at an apothecary, a few years after he migrates to the capital of Portugal where he begins working at Azevedo and Son’s Pharmacy [Farmácia Azevedo e Filhos] while attending the School of Pharmacy [Escola de Farmácia].

Roberto Duarte Silva later moves from Lisbon to the Portuguese Colony of Macau and later to the English Colony of Hong Kong in China, where he opened his own Pharmacy. I was unable to find any other information pertaining to the pharmacies that were opened by Roberto Duarte Silva in Hong Kong and Macau. By 1863, he was living in Paris, France, where he worked in several different Pharmacies and received his bachelors’ degree in Organic Chemistry. By 1867, while working in the laboratory of one of his professors and renowned French chemist Charles-Adolphe Wurtz, Roberto Duarte Silva published his first of many works. Roberto Duarte Silva also taught at École des Mines de Paris, Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, and École Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrial de la Ville de Paris and one of his many pupils was the acclaimed french chemist Paul Charles Lepierre.

Roberto Duarte Silva’s face graces one of the bank notes

Roberto Duarte Silva later became the President of the Chemistry Society of Paris, also received the Jecker prize from the French Academy of Science and he would also be honored with the Legion of Honor [highest honor bestowed by the French Govt.] by the French Government for his many contributions to Science. He was also Commander of the Order of São Tiago of Portugal [Comendador da Ordem de São Tiago de Portugal].

sepultura_roberto_duarte_silva Tomb of Roberto Duarte Silva

While at his house located on Rue Thenard in Paris, France the renowned Cabo Verdean Chemist Roberto Duarte Silva passed away. The date was February 9th, 1889 a few days before his fifty-third birthday. Roberto Duarte Silva is buried at Petit Parnasse cemetery in Paris, France.



Faria, Luis António, Suzana Abreu, and Américo C. Araújo. Cabo Verde Terra de Morabeza: Uma Viagem Atraves de Sua Historia e Cultura. Valrico: LAF Enterprises, 2012.

A Semana http://asemana.publ.cv/spip.php?article73551&ak=1


Esquina do Tempo: Magazine Cultural Online – http://brito-semedo.blogs.sapo.cv/58374.html

Antónia Gertrudes Pusich: The First Cabo Verdean Woman Poet, Author, Journalist and Newspaper Editor

This incredible Criola’s story starts with the meeting of her father António Vicko Pusich and her mother Ana Maria Isabel Nunes at a reception at the Palace of Queluz. Ana Maria Isabel Nunes was the daughter of Manuel Nunes, and important character in the Court of D. Maria I of Portugal.  On August 25th, 1791, the parents of Antónia Gertrudes Pusich were married at the Chapel of Paço de Queluz.

António Pusich was accumulating up the distinctions and ranks regularly. In 1798, He is responsible for the brig Dragon [Dragão]. By the following year, already commands a brigantine named Balão that stops in the ports of the islands of Cabo Verde. On March 18th, 1801, António Pusich was appointed quartermaster of Cabo Verde’s Navy and also a Frigate Captain. António Pusich will later be named Governor of the islands, he was the only Intendant of the Navy of the Cape Verde Islands, a position he held for eight years.

In 1805, on the island of São Nicolau, Antónia Gertrudes Pusich was born. To mark the birth of his daughter, António Pusich erected the chapel of Santo António dos Navegantes [Saint Antony of the Navigators] in Porto Preguiça, São Nicolau. The Pusich family had four other children besides Antónia Gertrudes Pusich and they were João Antonio Pusich; Jerolim/Jeronymo Antonio Pusich; Ana Isabel Pusich and Pedro Antonio Pusich.

While still young Antónia Pusich collaborated with her parents in supporting populations of Cabo Verde, so many times plagued by disease and hardship due to protracted and cyclical droughts. She claims that her father did away in Cabo Verde with barbarous customs, such as corporal punishment in public that the former governor committed against the population, which according to Antónia Pusich, were virtually enslaved.

From an early age, Antonia Gertrudes accompanied her father on his trips throughout the islands of Cabo Verde. She also at times served as his secretary to draft certain documents.

Antónia Gertrudes Pusich married for the first time very young, in 1820 at the age of 15, with Judge João Cardoso de Almeida Amado Viana Coelho, a Delegate to the Parliamentary Courts of 1820, and had six children: João António Pusich Viana Coelho, Antónia Pusich Viana Coelho, Alfredo Pusich Viana Coelho, Maria Pusich Viana Coelho, Ana Pusich Viana Coelho e Ema Pusich Da Costa Freire E Oliveira (Viana Coelho).

The second marriage of Antónia Pusich was in 1830, with Commander Francisco Henriques Teixeira. From this marriage a son is born named Miguel Pusich Henriques Teixeira. Having become a widow for a second time, Antonia Gertrudes Pusich marries for a third time on April 16, 1836, in the Church of Santa Isabel, in Lisbon, with Captain José Roberto de Melo Fernandes e Almeida. They had several children, and their names were António (Melo Pusich), Antónia Gertrudes Andrade E Albuquerque (Pusich de Melo), Ana Isabel Filomena (Pusich de Melo) and Maria Amélia Carvalho (Pusich de Melo).

She was thought to read and write-through the education provided to her by her father and she practiced her reading skills with the many books that surrounded her at her home. She also had knowledge of several languages and began to write at a very early age. But the married life of a 19th century woman and her three marriages, as well as the adversities of life, only allowed her to publish for the first time in 1841. Antónia Gertrudes Pusich best known work is Olinda ou a Abadia de Comnor Place, published in 1848.

capeverdehistoryunearthed.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/pes_490424.jpg”> Antónia Gertrudes Pusich
B. 10/01/1805 in São Nicolau, Cabo Verde D. 10/06/1883 in Lisboa, Portugal[/caption]Antó

Antónia Gertrudes Pusich also wrote about members the royal family, whom always devoted to her family and herself a great friendship, and she was even a close friend of the Infanta Maria Isabel. The longevity of the author allowed her career to span several reigns – from D. Maria I until the reign of King Luís I of Portugal.

Her literary work is extensive and it is known that Antónia Gertrudes Pusch turned to writing in order to provide for her large family. Although many of her books seem relevant only to researchers and scholars, her writing as a journalist and as a founder of three journals [newspapers, periodicals] are to this day read with interest and pleasure. Antónia Pusich founded A Cruzada, A Beneficência and A Assembleia Literária and they stand as testimony of one facet of a pedagogue and a full participant in social and political life. She also had great success at the Teatro Normal, with the presentation of her piece entitled Constança ou o Amor Maternal, which was an autobiographical drama.

At a time when women were confined to the family, to music and embroidery, Antónia Pusich argued that they should also learn to read and write in order to fully participate in the social and political life of the country. Through the newspapers that she founded she aroused in the 19th century Portuguese and Cabo Verdean women the civic sense that would be a reality in the centuries that followed.

Antónia Gertrudes Pusich should be placed in the Cabo Verdean Literary Hall of Fame for her writing and accomplishments alongside the Early Writers [Antonio Januario Leite, Guilherme Ernesto, Custodio Duarte, Jose Lopes, Pedro Cardoso (Afro), Eugenio Tavares] and the Writers of the Claridade Movement [Baltasar Lopes da Silva (Osvaldo Alcântara), Jorge Barbosa, Manuel Lopes, António Aurélio Gonçalves, Jaime Figueiredo, Joao Lopes].

To know her is to admire her.

Street named after Antónia Pusich located in Bairro de Alvalade, Lisbon, Portugal. Her last residence was on this street as well.
toryunearthed.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/rua-antc3b3nia-pusich.jpg”> Street named after Antónia Pusich located in Bairro de Alvalade, Lisbon, Portugal. Her last residence was on this street as well.




Faria, Luis António, Suzana Abreu, and Américo C. Araújo. Cabo Verde Terra de Morabeza: Uma Viagem Atraves de Sua Historia e Cultura. Valrico: LAF Enterprises, 2012.

O Leme – http://www.leme.pt/biografias/pusich/




Manuel António Martins: Napoleon of the Islands

The story of Manuel António Martins [1771?-1845]  in Cabo Verde begins in 1793, when at the age of twenty-one as master of a vessel laden with casks of wine from Faial in the Azores. The vessel was the Sumaca, she was a sloop which is a small one-masted ship. The Sumaca was owned by a Mr. Borralho, allegedly the vessel was damaged in a storm off the Canary Islands and blown southward to Cabo Verde. Martins made a quick getaway with the vessel and cargo and used his gains to commence an inter-island commerce in the archipelago, an enterprise in which he was remarkably successful.

Manuel António Martins

In 1793, Martins married a daughter of Aniceto António Ferreira, the Azorean Capitão-mor [commandant] of Boa Vista. The couple had sixteen children, seven sons and nine daughters. Their sons became involved in their father’s multifarious shipping, slave-trading, and political activities. Meanwhile, the sons of the archipelago’s morgados competed to marry Martins’s daughters and female relatives.

Manuel António Martins was born in the city of Braga, Portugal to João António Martinez Cosqueiro [from Spain] and Bernarda de Autrello [Italian], they migrated from Asturias, Spain to Braga where Manuel António Martins was born.

Manuel António Martins was Governor of Cabo Verde [1834-1835], Archeiro-Mor of the Royal House, Consul and Vice-Consul of the United States, owner of the Salinas [Salt beds], monopoly on the export of Urzella. He ordered the construction of the tunnel to access the Salinas and the first railway line in Portuguese Africa on the Island of Sal. As Governor he established the piping of fresh water to the City of Praia and also to the village of Nova Sintra, Brava. He became the wealthiest and most prominent man in Cabo Verde. He was the founder of Pedra de Lume and the town of Santa Maria and also populated the islands of Sal and São Vicente. He also built the Fort of Duke of Bragança  that is located in the islet in front of the City of Sal Rei in Boa Vista.  What is written above is not the entire story of Manuel António Martins, there are a lot more details to how this man came to dominate the economic and political system of Cabo Verde.

Portugal emerged from the Napoleonic Wars virtually bankrupt, with its ruler and court living in exile in Brazil. During the decades following, Portugal experienced chronic economic and political crises that distracted attention from colonial affairs, especially regarding such unprofitable colonies as the province of Cabo Verde. Once Britain closed the Senegal and Gambia rivers to slave vessels, slave caravans from the interior of western Africa rerouted south to the Casamance, Cacheu, Geba, and Grande rivers, where Portuguese, Luso-Africans, and Cabo Verdeans prospered as middlemen supplying slave vessels of many nations. Everywhere in western Africa, legitimate traders colluded with slavers. Cabo Verde became the advance base for illicit commerce with western Africa, both for slavers and for legitimate traders engaged in smuggling goods at colonial settlements. Notoriously prominent in the slave trade, legitimate trade, and other lucrative enterprises was Manuel António Martins.

In  Sal Rei, Martins dispensed fabricated Portuguese vessel registries and other documents to slavers seeking to avoid capture by the Royal Navy. He colluded with colonial officials and with merchants and political influentials in Portugal.  The illegal slave trade flourished to the profit of Martins and corrupt colonial officials, while the province was starved of revenues to support the colony’s civil, military, and ecclesiastical establishments and maintain and repair public buildings, forts, and other government properties.

During the 1810s and 1820s, São Tiago had adequate rainfall, and Praia’s convenient location and inexpensive provisions made it a popular revictualing port of call for merchantmen, whalers, and other vessels plying the South Atlantic and for slavers, legitimate traders, and men-of-war bound for West Africa. American seafarers were prominent among the slavers and legitimate traders who visited Cabo Verde in growing numbers.

In December 1818, another player arrives in Cabo Verde Samuel Hodges Jr., of Stoughton, Massachusetts, settled at Praia as a commission merchant and U.S. consul, and except for brief visits back to the United States, he stayed there with his family until his death in 1827.

Soon after arriving in Cabo Verde, Hodges became associated with Martins as a business partner and invaluable mediator with Portuguese officials. As the U.S. Consul he began to exercise the functions of U.S. consul, including appointing vice-consuls for several islands. Foremost among them was Manuel A. Martins, whom Hodges made the U.S. vice-consul for Boa Vista. With Martins and Hodges working together, European and Eurafrican traders living in western Africa dispatched vessels to Praia to obtain American tobacco, lumber, and other products and arrange for American vessels to deliver cargoes at French and British colonial ports in collusion with local officials or at places of rendezvous; later, these goods would be smuggled into colonial settlements or carried up rivers aboard the schooners, sloops, and canoes that linked western Africa’s markets.

The Portuguese government’s lack of commitment and capability to suppress the slave trade or punish corrupt colonial officials was especially manifested in the governorship of António Pusich (1818–1821) of Italian nationality, born in the “Republic of Ragusa,”  who exceeded most governors of Cabo Verde in enterprise and initiative. Pusich married Mrs.  Anna Maria Isabel Nunes, a Portuguese aristocrat, and secured Portuguese citizenship and an officer’s commission in the Portuguese navy. From 1801 to 1811, he and his family resided at Ribeira Brava on the island of São Nicolau in a post especially created for him: naval superintendent for Cabo Verde, independent of the authority of governors and colonial officials.

In May 1819, five months after assuming the governorship, Pusich established a fishing enterprise, with Manuel António Martins and some of his associates on Boa Vista. The funds, however, were soon squandered, promoting hostility between Governor Pusich and Martins. Hostilities between Pusich and Martins escalated again in 1820 when the governor accused Martins of scheming to sell the islands of Sal and São Vicente to three Englishmen trading at Bathurst: Thomas Barber, William Waterman, and Edward Bocock. Likewise allegedly interested was a Frenchman named Dèves whose trading establishment at Saint-Louis developed into the firm of Maison Dèves-Chaumet.  Manuel António Martins retaliated the following year by exploiting to his advantage the political transformations in Portugal: in May 1821, he incited a mob action in Praia, joined by soldiers in the garrison, that removed Pusich from the governorship. Pusich’s downfall was a delayed consequence of the 1820 liberal revolution in Portugal that had been galvanized by economic, political, and nationalistic grievances.

Always poised to seize an opportunity for self-advancement, on March 21, 1821—seven months after the Porto garrison mutinied- Manuel António Martins organized a demonstration at Sal Rei on behalf of liberals and against Governor Pusich’s “despotic rule.” João Cabral da Cunha Goodolphim joined in the demonstration despite having been appointed Boa Vista’s commandant by Pusich in May 1820 following the retirement of Martins’s father-in-law, Aniceto António Ferreira. In appointing Goodolphim the commandant of Boa Vista, Pusich doubtless expected him to curtail Martins’s influence. Goodolphim had previously served as interim commander of Cacheu from 1815 to 1818, and during that time, he probably collaborated with Martins in slaving ventures, just as he would do while commandant of Cacheu from 1823 to 1826.

The unprecedented political activism at Boa Vista orchestrated by Martins encouraged similar initiatives by the inhabitants of other islands. Growing unrest culminated on May 1, 1821, when a mass turnout of Praia’s population, joined by soldiers in the garrison, deposed Governor Pusich. With his family, he took refuge on the island of Maio. Pusich was supplanted by a junta provisoria (provisional council), which administered the archipelago for the next year and a half (from May 1821 to January 1823). Martins joined the junta and skillfully increased his influence.

Over decades, Manuel António Martins increased the salt production of Ilha do Sal. In 1796, he dispatched slaves to create salinas and dig wells to sustain themselves and goatherds on the waterless, windswept wasteland. In 1805, Governor António Coutinho de Lencastre appointed Martins as Sal’s administrator, and in 1808, he granted him the privilege of collecting customs duties. During the 1820s, Martins undertook to exploit the salt-producing potential of Pedra Lume, Sal’s extinct 406-meter-high volcanic cone.

The salt was transported in carts propelled by sails along rail tracks to be loaded on vessels at a pier several kilometers away. Donkeys pulled the empty rail carts back to Pedra Lume. In September 1829, Martins received authorization to transport 100 to 150 slaves from Bissau and Cacheu to labor at Sal’s salinas and to engage in fishing to feed the workers. In 1834, he founded the settlement of Santa Maria das Dores (Saint Mary of Sorrows) which was also known as Porto Martins on the southern tip of the island.

In December 1833, Martins’s close friend Francisco Simões Margiochi, the minister of marine, appointed him prefect [prefeito] of the province of Cabo Verde and Guiné, the civilian title being a liberal innovation replacing military governorships. Martins also benefited from lobbying on his behalf by other individuals whose influence he had cultivated for years.  Manuel António Martins was the only person to serve as a prefeito, while the prefect Manuel António Martins attempted to move the capital from Praia to Sal Rei but he was not successful. The government abolished the title in April 1835, instead dispatching governors-general who exercised both military and civil authority. Martins continued to prosper in numerous enterprises, including slave trading, and he maintained surpassing influence and powers of intimidation concerning Cabo Verde’s inhabitants. After his death in July 1845, his business affairs were carried on by his widow, children, and proliferating descendants.



Faria, Luis António, Suzana Abreu, and Américo C. Araújo. Cabo Verde Terra de Morabeza: Uma Viagem Atraves de Sua Historia e Cultura. Valrico: LAF Enterprises, 2012.

George E. Brooks (2010-12-10). Western Africa and Cabo Verde, 1790s-1830s: Symbiosis of Slave and Legitimate Trades. Authorhouse. Kindle Edition.



Two Cape Verdeans Give Birth To The First Portuguese Republic

Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis

The Portuguese Republic was established as a result of a coup d’état that was organized by the Portuguese Republican Party on October 5th, 1910, which deposed the constitutional monarchy and a Republican Regime is installed.  The Portuguese citizens were not pleased with the royal family’s expenses, the power of the Church, the political and social instability, the system of alternating power of the two political parties and also an apparent inability to adapt to modern times.

The revolution started on the night of October 3rd, after the Republican leaders heard of the assassination of one of their own  Dr. Miguel Bombarda.  Due to this incident the Republican leaders had an emergency meeting, some among the leadership were against the meeting and wanted to postpone their plan of action because of the strong military presence in Lisbon.  The strong military presence was due to the state visit of President Hermes da Fonseca of Brazil and also because of the rumors of an imminent coup d’état.

Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis was against postponing the revolution and he insisted for it to take place. Cândido dos Reis thought it would be madness to allow the Government time to order the war ships out of the Tagus. Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis convinced his fellow Republicans by saying, “If you will not go out, I will go out alone with the sailors. I shall have the honor of getting myself shot by my comrades of the army.” Dos Reis continued with, “The Revolution will not be delayed: follow me, if you want. If there is one that fulfills its duty, this one will be me.” [“A Revolução não será adiada: sigam-me, se quiserem. Havendo um só que cumpra o seu dever, esse único serei eu.”

The thoroughness with which the Republican party was organized says much for the practical ability of its leaders. The moving spirits in the central committee were Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis, Affonso Costa, João Chagas, and Dr. Miguel Bombarda. Simões Raposo spoke for the Freemasons; the Carbonaria Portugueza, a powerful secret society, was represented by Machado dos Santos, an officer in the navy. The Republican party also had a separate finance committee, and funds were ample.

The revolution was to commence with a signal of three cannon shots, but it is unclear if the signal was given but at the appointed hour mutinies broke out in several military barracks.  A small group of armed civilians and mixed company of soldiers attempted an attack upon the Necessidades Palace, to demand the abdication of the King; but they were repelled back to the rallying point of the Republican forces, the Rotunda, at the upper end of the Avenida da Liberdade.

While Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis was on the wharf preparing to undertake command of the naval side of the revolution, he was approached by an unidentified person and was told that the revolt was crushed and all was lost. After hearing this message, Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis headed to his sister’s house, and the next morning his body was found in Arroios with a bullet through his brain.  It is believed that in desperation Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis had committed suicide. If he had delayed his suicide by a couple of hours, he would have seen his dream of a Republican Portuguese State become a reality. Today many towns, cities and avenues are named after this great patriot and founding father of the Republican Portuguese State.

This ardent patriot and leader of the revolution is listed as being born in Lisbon on January 16th, 1852 and at the age of 17 joined the Portuguese Navy as a volunteer. By September of 1909, Carlos Cândido dos Reis had been promoted to Vice-Admiral in the Portuguese Army. He had also joined the Republican Party sometime in 1908.  He was the son of António dos Reis, from Caldas da Rainha, Portugal and Matilde Espirito Santo Nencette from Fernão Nunes, Brava.  His maternal grandparents were António Elisário Nencette from Portugal and Anna da Conceição Armas de Burgo from Brava. According to his living descendants Carlos Cândido dos Reis was born in Brava and emigrated to Portugal while still a young child, where he would be baptized. Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis is related to the Burgo and Azevedo families of Cape Verde.

José Barbosa

The other Cape Verdean that took part in the Republican revolution in Portugal on October 5th, 1910 was José Barbosa. Mr. Barbosa was born on the Island of Fogo in 1869. He was a journalist by training and a strong republican, he spread the Republican ideals in all of

the newspapers that he contributed to. José Barbosa was persecuted for his Republican belief, which let to him fleeing to Spain in 1894, then France and later Brazil.

In 1908, he joined the central committee of the Republican Portuguese Party and actively participated in the preparations for the coup d’ état of October 5th, 1910.  After the Introduction of the Republic, the provisional government nominated José Barbosa for the position of Secretary of the Interior.  In 1920, during the government of Domingos Pereira, José Barbosa was appointed Minister of the Colonies.

On September 4th, 1923 José Barbosa passed away in the capital of Portugal.

José Barbosa

There is a strong possibility that if Vice-Admiral Carlos Cândido dos Reis had survived, he could have been the first president of the newly formed Republican Portuguese State. What would/could have been the impact of a Cape Verdean born president of Portugal on the colony of Cape Verde and some of the other Portuguese colonies? One can only ponder.

By: Gerson Monteiro



Faria, Luis António, Suzana Abreu, and Américo C. Araújo. Cabo Verde Terra de Morabeza: Uma Viagem Atraves de Sua Historia e Cultura. Valrico: LAF Enterprises, 2012.
Rudd, John. The Great Events by Famous Historians: A Comprehensive and Readable Account of the World’s History, Emphasizing the More Important Events, and Presenting These as Complete Narratives in the Master-words of the Most Eminent Historians. Vol. 21. N.p.: National Alumni, 1914. Print.
Singleton, Esther, ed. The World’s Great Events; an Indexed History of the World from Earliest times to the Present Day .. Vol. 9. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1916. Print.

Cape Verdean Veterans of American Wars

In honor of Armistice/ Veterans Day this post will honor Cape Verdean veterans of American Wars.

The Cape Verdean community here in the States should be very proud of all the Patriots it has produced and lost in every American war since the beginning; fighting for its independence, it’s struggle to remain a unified nation and for the abolition of slavery. We have fought with her against fascists and saved millions from death camps all over Europe. We were there in Korea and Vietnam and every other time Americans have been called to serve this country, including Iraq and Afghanistan.

Here is a partially list of the thousands of Cape Verdeans that have served this great nation (info provided by www.thecreolagenealogist.wordpress.com/2012/07/03/cape-verdeans-and-americas-independance-day-just-as-american-as-apple-pie :

Documented Cape Verdean military soldiers in the Revolutionary war for Independence from England were collected by Jose dos Anjos in his research of Cape Verdean military soldiers

James Pease (Jaime Pires)
Anthony Briffin (Antonio Britto)
Andrew deBarrow (Andre de Barros)
John Gomes
John Lopes
I added what may have been their original names in Cape Verde.

He also includes an extensive list of Cape Verdeans who served in the Navy and Army in the Civil War


Name Age Complection Occupation Home
Antoine, Joseph 21 Negro Mariner Cape Verde
Antone, George 31 Mulatto None Cape Verde
Antone, Manuel 19 Black Mariner Cape Verde
Antone, Manuel 27 Mulatto None Cape Verde
Pedro Antone 30 Negro None Cape Verde
Antonio, George 32 Mulatto Sailor Cape St. Vincent, Cape Verde
Antonio, George 34 Mulatto Mariner St. Vincent, Cape Verde
Antonio, Joseph 22 Mulatto Steward Cape Verde
Antonio, Sylva 34 Negro Mariner/Carpenter Cape Verde
Antonio, Vincent 43 Negro Mariner Cape Verde
Bettis, Anton 31 Negro None Cape Verde
Bin, Philip 32 Black Sailor/Carpenter Cape Verde
Bisley, Henry M. 28 Mulatto Cook & Steward Bon Vista, Cape Verde
Cori, John 26 Mulatto Mariner Cape Verde
Correia, Joseph 25 Mulatto Mariner Cape Verde
DeBaron, Manuel A. 21 Mulatto Mariner Cape Verde
DeCruz, Antonio 33 Negro None Buena Vista, Cape Verde
Dees, Clement 27 Mulatto Mariner San Antonio, Cape Verde
Ford, Peter 27 Negro None Cape Verde
Francis, Antonio 24 Negro Sailor Cape Verde
Gomes, Ambroze 23 Mulatto None Cape Verde
Gomez, John 25 Black Mariner Porta Praya, Cape Verde
Gomez, Manuel 22 Black Seaman Bravo, Cape Verde
Goney, George 23 Negro Sailor/Farmer Port Praya, Cape Verde
Gonzales, Manuel 24 Mulatto None Cape Verde
John, Manuel 28 Mulatto Carpenter/Cooper Cape Verde
Johnson, John 21 Mulatto Steward Cape Verde
Johnson, John 21 Mulatto Steward Cape Verde
Jokim, John 36 Negro Sailor Porto Praya, Cape Verde
Jose, Antonio M. 23 Black
Cape Verde
Lear, Thomas 38 Mulatto Boat steerer Cape Verde
Lewis, Joseph 35 Mulatto None Cape Verde
Lewis, Manuel 30 Black
Bravo, Cape Verde
Lopes, Frank 45 Black Mariner Brava, Cape Verde
Lopes, Robert 27 Black Sailor Cape Verde
Lopes, Roberto 22 Negro None Cape Verde
Lopez, Antonio 21 Mulatto None Cape Verde
Lopez, Antonio 39 Black Seaman Cape Verde
Lopez, Emanuel 25 Black Mariner Cape Verde
Lupps, John 20 Mulatto Cook Cape Verde
Manuel, Antonio 28 Negro Mariner Cape Verde
Marshall, George 25 Mulatto Mariner Cape Verde
Meany, Joseph 25 Negro
Cape Verde
Murphy, James 28 Negro Mariner Cape Verde
Norshus, George 24 Mulatto None Cape Verde
Prez, Manuel A. 43 Mulatto
Cape Verde
Richardson, Charles 21 Mulatto Cook Cape Verde
Robero, Antone 32 Negro None Bravo, Cape Verde
Rosa, Julian 25 Negro None Cape Verde
Sanford, Antonio 19 Negro Sailor Cape Verde
Seeley, John D. 24 Black Cook/Mariner Cape Verde
Silva, Antonio 20
Mariner Cape Verde
Silva, Antonio 22 Colored Seaman Cape Verde
Silver, Joseph S. 20 Negro Mariner Cape Verde
Smith, John 22 Black Sailor Cape Verde
Varas, Christian F. 22 Black Mariner Cape Verde
Williams, John 27 Mulatto Sailor Cape Verde
Williams, Steven 24 Black Mariner Cape Verde


John Antom Togo, Cape Delaware Verde 12 Oct 1864 Portland 11th
U.S. Colored Heavy Artillery abt 1838 11

John Battis Cape De Verde Is 1863 Boston, Massachusetts 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment (Colored)

George Gansery Cape De Verde Islands 1864 New York, New York 31st United States Colored Infantry

Joaquin, Jacob Perura Cape De Verde Isles 1864 Jamaica, New York 26th United States Colored Infantry

James Smith Fogo, Cape Delaware Verde 12 Oct 1864 Portland 11th U.S. Colored Heavy Artillery abt 1842 8

James Smith Toga, Cape De Verde 1864 Portland 24th United States Colored Infantry

Peter Fernandes born in 1837 who enlisted in the Civil War in 1864 and discharged on 9/29/1865 at the end of the war
Antonion Oliveira born in 1827 who was a sergeant in the Army and discharged 10/31/1865 , also after the war ended.

Also I would like to add my grandfather Frank (xucala) Benoliel Silva born in 1887 joined the Brazilian Navy and took part in the Revolt of the Lashes (Revolta da Chibata) on November 21-22, 1910 and after immigrating to USA he joined the American Navy during WWI and WWII

Arthur Gomes World War II Veteran
Courtesy of ©Ron Barboza Collection

Frank "Xucala" Benoliel Silva
Frank “Xucala” Benoliel Silva Courtesy of © Xucala Collection

Pictures:Arthur Gomes World War II Veteran [picture on the left] and Frank Benoliel Silva [picture on the right]
# #history #capeverdeanveterans #capeverdeanhistory

Cape Verdean Women Breaking the Norms

Today’s post is dedicated to every Cape Verdean Women that has lived or that will ever live. During a time when being a woman meant that you had to rights and everything you owed would belong to your husband [once you married], in Cape Verde we had some women breaking ground hundreds of years before the feminist movement.

The second donatary*** of Ribeira Grande [Southern Santiago], which today is called Cidade Velha, was BRANCA de AGUIAR the daughter of the founder of Ribeira Grande Antonio de Noli. Branca de Aguiar inherited everything that belonged to her father including his titles; she was in charge from 8 Apr 1497 – 27 Oct 1526. She was married to Jorge Correia a Portuguese nobleman, who became co-ruler.

Another woman breaking the norms was MARIA CORREIA, the Captain of Boa Vista from 1542 to 15??. Maria Correia most likely inherited the Captaincy, as man with her last name held the title of Captain of Boa Vista from the 3rd of January 1505 until 1542

The final women on the list is FILIPA DA SILVA [b. 1550 – d. 1590] the 4th countess of Portalegre, she was the donatary of São Vicente and São Nicolau from 1580 until her death in 1590.

***A Donatário, a Portuguese word roughly meaning endowed or donated, sometimes anglicized as Donatary, was a private person (often a nobleman) who the Crown bestowed a considerable piece of land (called a donataria) to administer.

Normally, the donatário was the recipient of a Captaincy, a territorial division and land grant, within Portuguese colonies.

The donatário was obligated to govern their territories under specific terms: in exchange for the grant, the donatário received tax immunities, but was also responsible for promoting and settling new residents to his territory, establishing churches (following the Catholic faith), protect them from frequent pirate attacks and promoting agriculture and commerce.cropped-cv_andreis_1778_01.jpg